In 1821, the city of Indianapolis was founded as a planned city to serve as the new headquarters of the Indiana state government. The city was initially plagued by drainage and sanitation issues, but this changed with the arrival of the railroad in 1847, which also marked the year that Indianapolis received its official city status. Irish and German immigrants arrived in the early 1830s to work on the Central Canal and National Highway projects. The Soldiers and Sailors Monument on Monument Circle has come to symbolize Indianapolis. In 1822, a federal militia was organized for central Indiana, and in 1826, the city's first rifle and artillery companies were formed.
The Indiana Journal became the city's first newspaper in 1842, followed by the Indianapolis News in 1869, which was the first evening newspaper. The Assembly passed a bill that consolidated the city and county's budgetary functions, allowed for the consolidation of the Indianapolis Police Department and Marion County Sheriff's Department, and also allowed for the consolidation of the Indianapolis Fire Department with other municipal fire departments after approval by affected parties. The Indianapolis Turngemeinde (185), or Turners, merged with other German clubs and became known as the Indianapolis Social Turnverein. Indianapolis is one of the largest cities in the interior of the United States that is not found on any navigable body of water. In 1894, inspired by the City Beautiful movement, the Commercial Club (predecessor of the Indianapolis Chamber of Commerce) hired Joseph Earnshaw, a landscape engineer from Cincinnati, Ohio, to develop a comprehensive park system.
The first train connected Madison, Indiana on the banks of the Ohio River to Indianapolis in 1847. Most of the first merchants established businesses on Washington Street, but their first market was built north of the courthouse in 1833. In its early years, most of those who moved to Indianapolis were Europeans and Americans of European descent. However, later on other ethnic groups began to arrive in the city. The seat of government moved to Indianapolis in 1824 and its legislature met there for the first time in 1825. The first capitol building was not erected until 1835. The city's first two justices of the peace were appointed in 1821 and its first jail was built in 1822. In 1924, Ruth Wells completed her thesis on Indianapolis' immigrant communities and was subsequently hired as director of the American Settlement - a learning and recreation center for immigrants who had come to work in industrial plants and meat packing plants. The history of Indianapolis is an interesting one that has seen many changes over time. From its founding as a planned city to serve as Indiana's state government headquarters to its growth as an industrial hub with immigrants from all over Europe arriving to work on various projects, it has been an ever-evolving city with a rich history.
In addition to its historical significance, it is also home to many cultural attractions such as Monument Circle and its many parks developed by Joseph Earnshaw.